Темы
T

Зачем Фейсбуку своя криптовалюта?

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Летом этого года социальная сеть Facebook представила свою криптовалюту Libra. Поскольку из-за скандала с утечкой данных Cambridge Analytica многие перестали доверять Цукербергу, криптовалюту и платформу Libra будет развивать специально созданный консорциум Libra Association, зарегистрированный в Женеве. В него уже вошло около 30 компаний, среди которых Farfetch, Uber, eBay и другие, причем каждая заплатила по $10 млн. Разбираемся, как работают криптовалюты и каковы перспективы блокчейна от Facebook.

0. словарь


БИТКОИН

Первая и самая известная в мире криптовалюта. В 2010 году им впервые стали торговать на бирже — за 5 центов, а в декабре 2017-го за него давали 20 000 долларов. Его курс может сильно меняться. Так, 30 июля 2019 года один биткоин можно купить за 604 414 рубля.

Наведите на cлово, чтобы посмотреть его значение

КРИПТОВАЛЮТА

Цифровая валюта, созданная в качестве альтернативы реальным деньгам и не контролирующаяся никаким государством. Всего в мире сейчас существует около тысячи разных криптовалют. В них можно инвестировать, а в некоторых странах даже расплачиваться ими за обычные покупки.

ДАРКНЕТ

Так называемый теневой интернет, где IP пользователей недоступны публично и весь обмен данными происходит анонимно. Самая популярная такая сеть — Tor.

Биткоин

Даркнет

БЛОКЧЕЙН

Своего рода база данных, дословно «цепочка блоков». Это история всех транзакций (например, криптовалюты), которая хранится у каждого участника этой сети. Поэтому процесс считается максимально прозрачным: никто не может никого обмануть.

Блокчейн

ТОКЕН

Единица информации, которая передается через блокчейн. Им могут быть и монеты в криптовалюте, и другие аналоги ценных бумах вроде акций.

МАЙНИТЬ

Буквально «добывать» (а не покупать) криптовалюту: быть активным участником блокчейна, подтверждая в нем транзакции, и получать за это вознаграждение.

Майнить

Криптовалюта

Токен

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1. Что такое криптовалюты?


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Криптовалюта появилась как ответ на существующую мировую финансовую систему, зависящую от инфляции и политики. Идея была в том, чтобы создать «универсальные деньги», прозрачную денежную массу, которую будут контролировать сами пользователи, а не правительства и центральные банки.


Так, самая популярная криптовалюта биткоин, созданная Сатоси Накамото (никто не знает точно, один это человек или группа анонимных разработчиков) в 2008 году, решает проблему прозрачности путем ограничения выпуска биткоинов. Всего в мире будет 21 миллион биткоинов, то есть биткоин исполняет роль конечного ресурса, своего рода «цифрового золота», и его подлинность можно проверить.





Изначально, чтобы получить биткоин, нужно было его намайнить (от англ mine — «добыть»). Компьютеры, подключенные к блокчейн-системе биткоина, работали по заданному Сатоси алгоритму — решали математические задачи, и тот, что верно и раньше всех приходил к правильному ответу, получал определенное количество биткоинов. Поначалу свои компьютеры к майнинговой сети подключали только гики и криптоэнтузиасты, которым нравилась сама идея. Однако вскоре появились биржи и обменники, где можно было купить криптовалюту за фиатные, то есть обычные деньги — доллары, евро и так далее. С этого момента в игру вступили спекулянты, которые стали подогревать интерес к крипте по правилам фондовых рынков.


Параллельно появлялись новые криптовалюты, так называемые альткоины — цифровые монеты Ripple, Ethereum, Cardano, Monero и так далее. У каждой криптовалюты есть свои отличительные особенности, преимущества и недостатки по отношению к биткоину. Например, в отличие от биткоина, у Monero — неиссякаемое количество токенов, а также высокий уровень анонимности, что способствует его популярности в даркнете.

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3. Когда о криптовалюте заговорил весь мир?


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Бурный рост криптовалютного рынка случился в 2017-м. Отчасти этому способствовал закон, принятый властями Японии в апреле 2017-го, который приравнивал все криптовалюты к обычным деньгам и легализовал их оборот. Еще в январе биткоин побил предыдущий рекорд — отметку в 1000 долларов, пройденную в 2013 году.


Летом 2017-го о биткоине говорили все: от таксистов до фэшн-блогеров. Кажется, криптовалюта стала самой горячей темой сезона. Крипто- и блокчейн-конференции переместились на яхты и пароходы, совершающие круизы по Средиземноморью, где самозабвенно обсуждали, как блокчейн захватит мир. Как его можно будет использовать для всего: от договоров купли-продажи (посредством смарт-контрактов, которые обеспечивают исполнение договора) до выборов президентов (мол, если они будут переведены на блокчейн, то не останется места вбросам, неверным подсчетам и прочим махинациям с бюллетенями). Однако говорили об этом в основном криптоэнтузиасты, охотники за деньгами и славой и прочие идеологи, неспособные написать и строчки кода. Блокчейн использовать-то можно, но будут ли усилия оправданы?

Тем не менее, за 2017 год курс и капитализация биткоина выросли примерно в 20 раз (по данным на конец года), а капитализация всего крипторынка — в 34 раза.

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4. Что такое ICO?


В том же 2017 году случился бум так называемых ICO — дословно, «первичного предложения монет» (Initial Coin Offering). Различные компании начали предлагать на рынке свои токены — по аналогии с покупкой акций в ходе IPO. Они заявляли, что токены станут внутренней валютой, за которую можно получить их продукты или услуги. На практике же срабатывал спекулятивный механизм, и после резкого скачка сразу после ICO токены стремительно падали в цене.

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Впрочем, были и исключения. Так, закрытое ICO Telegram стало одним из самых масштабных, всего компания привлекла $1,7 млрд от ограниченного круга инвесторов, в число которых вошли Роман Абрамович, Давид Якобашвили («Вимм-Билль-Данн») и Сергей Солонин (Qiwi). Предполагалось, что деньги пойдут на создание собственной криптовалюты Gram и блокчейн-платформы TON. Проект Дурова мог бы составить серьезную конкуренцию «классическим» платежным системам, таким как Visa и MasterCard с одной стороны и криптовалютам — с другой. Изначально запуск первой версии TON предполагался летом 2018 года, затем сроки сместились на ноябрь 2018-го, потом — на декабрь 2018-го. Публичного запуска не случилось до сих пор. 





5. зачем Фейсбуку своя криптовалюта? 


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Пока Дуров обещал сделать свою криптовалюту, Цукерберг, видимо, вовсю уже этим занимался: в июне этого года Facebook представила свою криптовалюту Libra на собственном блокчейне. Начинание поддержали такие компании, как Farfetch, PayPal, eBay, Uber, которые внесли по $10 млн за участие в консорциум Libra Association. Правда, по информации New York Times, минимум 7 из 27 партнеров Libra подписали не обязывающие соглашения с соцсетью — они могут не использовать и не продвигать цифровую валюту, а также могут выйти из проекта в любое время.


По сути, Цукерберг пытается выпустить в обращение свои внутренние деньги, которые со временем составят конкуренцию фиатным, обычным деньгам. Еще и под видом стейблкоина — так называют криптовалюту, не подверженную высокой волатильности, то есть резкому изменению курса. В отличие от Bitcoin и многих других криптовалют Libra будет обеспечена реальными деньгами и финансовыми инструментами.





6. Какая от этого польза всем нам?




По задумке создателей Libra, появление новой криптовалюты облегчит жизнь и покупателям, и продавцам: в интернете появится единая платежная система для всех сервисов и покупок. Обещают, что криптовалюта Libra будет интегрирована в Messenger, WhatsApp и Instagram уже в первой половине 2020 года. С ее помощью пользователи смогут совершать покупки не только в этих приложениях, но и в других сервисах, которые станут партнерами экосистемы Libra. Очевидно, именно на это рассчитывали и в Farfetch, когда принимали решение о входе в консорциум, ведь эта криптовалюта дает доступ к аудитории всех трех платформ одновременно, а это более 3,8 млрд пользователей по всему миру.


«Технология блокчейн уже давно представляет интерес для Farfetch, и мы изучаем ее потенциальное применение в luxury-индустрии, — сказала The Blueprint Стефани Фэйр, директор по стратегии Farfetch. — Мы считаем, что блокчейн Libra поможет обеспечить бесшовную электронную коммерцию и станет важной частью более широкой стратегии блокчейна компании».


По словам Фэйр, Farfetch стремится предоставить потребителям различные варианты удобной оплаты, и Libra станет одним из них.








6. Всех ли устраивает Libra?


«Криптовалюту Цукерберга» не все встретили с энтузиазмом. Политики нескольких стран, в том числе России, заявили, что официальное разрешение хождению подобной валюты дано не будет. Оно и понятно: потенциально распространение новой криптовалюты грозит безопасности национальных валют, которые контролируются правительствами государств.


Эта инновация также не очень похожа на то, за что боролись ранние криптоэнтузиасты, стремившиеся создать альтернативную финансовую систему с ограниченной денежной массой и децентрализованной системой. Ведь Libra не предполагает никакой децентрализации, несмотря на использование блокчейна, а вопрос регулирования остается открытым. В Libra Foundation не ответили на запрос редакции The Blueprint о цензурируемости и контроле над денежной массой новой криптовалюты.


Но самым острым остается вопрос приватности данных. И регуляторы, и общество стали меньше доверть Цукербергу после скандала с утечкой данных Cambridge Analytica. Более того, в Штатах прошел флешмоб «удали Facebook», когда люди стали массово удалять аккаунты в соцсети. Слушания по поводу запуска Libra уже назначили регуляторы в США, а Федеральный резерв заявил, что будет внимательно следить за проектом. Подробную информацию о Libra также запросили европейские регуляторы. Сможет ли криптовалюта, которую уже прозвали «цукбакс» и «фейскоин», прижиться и преодолеть скепсис — покажет лишь время.








Лучшие материалы The Blueprint
в нашем канале на Яндекс.Дзен

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